Vol 15 No 2 (2021): Supplementary
Articles

GENERATING RESPONSES IMMUNE IN CELLULAR AND HUMORAL TREATMENT WITH EPITOPE SPIKE, EPITOPE ENVELOPE PROTEIN, AND EPITOPE MEMBRANE PROTEIN SARS-COV-2, HONEY, SAUSSUREA LAPPA, AND NIGELLA SATIVA

Sumarno Reto Prawiro
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia
Meike Tiya Kusuma
Magister Degree Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia
Reyhan Amiruddin
Magister Degree Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia,
Irma Nur Sukmawati
Clinical Microbiologist Degree Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia
Yuyun Kusnaningrum
Clinical Microbiologist Degree Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia
Jayshri Davi S Nadarajah
Medical Doctor Degree Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia
Khoirul Anam
Doctoral Degree Program, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia
Tri Yudani Mardining Raras
Department Biochemistry Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia.
Sri Winarsih
Department of Clinical Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University Brawijaya Malang Java Indonesia
Published September 1, 2021
Keywords
  • Respons immune, Honey, Sausseria lappa, Nigella sativa, COVID-19.
How to Cite
Reto Prawiro, S., Kusuma, M., Amiruddin, R., Sukmawati, I., Kusnaningrum, Y., Nadarajah, J., Anam, K., Raras, T., & Winarsih, S. (2021). GENERATING RESPONSES IMMUNE IN CELLULAR AND HUMORAL TREATMENT WITH EPITOPE SPIKE, EPITOPE ENVELOPE PROTEIN, AND EPITOPE MEMBRANE PROTEIN SARS-COV-2, HONEY, SAUSSUREA LAPPA, AND NIGELLA SATIVA. African Journal of Infectious Diseases (AJID), 15(2), 23-30. https://doi.org/10.21010/ajid v15n2S.3

Abstract

Background:Covid-19 has become pandemic in the World, including Indonesia. Our last study showed that HSF could serve as an immunomodulator. Using the exact search, we found that the most immuno-dominant SARS-COV2 epitope, namely A spike protein epitope, B envelope protein epitope, and C membrane protein epitope, we concise to be HF

Materials and Methods:We used to post only control design study and mice as an animal model. The research divided mice into four groups, and the first group as control received PBS as a placebo. The second, three, and last four groups gave HF, HSN, and HFHSN (combine HF and HSN). All of the regiment enters the mouth with a special sonde to reach the gastrointestinal organ. We gave HF every week three times and HSN once a day. After administration regiments for a long three weeks, we sacrificed the mice. We evaluated cellular immune responses that are Th-2, Th-17, and NK cells. We check for humoral immune response, TGF-β,IL-17A, IL-4, IgG,IL-4, β-defensin, and s-IgA.

Results:Highest profile cellular immunity HF, HSN, and HFHSN were NK cell, Th-2 and Th-17, and the last NK cell, respectively. After that which in humoral immunity, the domination response IgG and IL-4 were HF. But HSN and HFHSN dominated for s-IgA and β-defensin production. By using the study Bio-Informatica, we found HF.

Conclusion: If the results of this study are continued to the clinical trial level, it is necessary to recommend additional markers such as CTL (s-IgA and β-defensin in lung tissue)and CPE assay.