• Ayan Aden MOUSSA Institute for Medical Research, SIMAD University, Mogadishu, Somalia
  • Bashiru GARBA Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria.



Background: In contrast to most developed countries, antimicrobial resistance (AMR)  has continued to be a serious challenge to public health in the majority of resource-limited countries in Africa.

Materials and method: A comprehensive review of all available literature reporting on antimicrobial resistance patterns, antimicrobial drug usage in both human and animals, as well as national AMR regulations in Somalia was undertaken.

Results: The review observed that successful AMR control and surveillance among resource-poor nations are  affected by a lack of infrastructural and institutional capacities, poor investment in human and material resources, as well as non-adherence to available policies. The humanitarian crisis affecting Somalia has persisted for too long, leading to loss of lives, productivity and dilapidation of public health infrastructures. Somalia like most countries has adopted the One Health approach in developing their soon-to-be gazetted National Action Plan on AMR, which covers both human health, animal health and the environment. Although






Abdirahman Hersi Hassan (2021). Prescribing patterns of medicine using WHO prescribing indicators at the Out-patient department of Galkayo South Hospital, Mudug region, Somalia [Galkayo University, Galmudug state of Somalia].

Abdulhaleem, N., Garba, B., Younis, H., Mahmuda, A., Hamat, R. A., Majid, R. B. A., Lung, L. T. T., Unyah, N. Z., Sattar, A. and Saidu, B. (2019). Current trend on the economic and public health significance of salmonellosis in Iraq. In Advances in Animal and Veterinary Sciences. 7( 6):484–491. Nexus Academic Publishers.

Achi, C., Bax, I. and Holmes, M. (2020). Multidrug-resistance in Salmonella species isolated from poultry in Nigeria. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 101(S1): 37–38.

Adam, M. H., Mohamoud, J. H., Mohamood, A. S., Mohamed, A. A., Garba, B. and Dirie, N. I. (2022). Seroprevalence of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Benadir Region, Somalia. Vaccines 2022. 10(2):220.

Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Laxminarayan, R. and Mendelson, M. (2017). How should we respond to the emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance in humans and animals? In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 77-84

Aslam, B., Wang, W., Arshad, M. I., Khurshid, M., Muzammil, S., Rasool, M. H., Nisar, M. A., Alvi, R. F., Aslam, M. A., Qamar, M. U., Salamat, M. K. F. and Baloch, Z. (2018). Antibiotic resistance: a rundown of a global crisis. In Infection and Drug Resistance, 11: 1645–1658. Dove Medical Press Ltd.

Bhui, K. and Warfa, N. (2007). Drug Consumption in Conflict Zones in Somalia. PLOS Medicine. 4(12), e354.

Bunduki, G. K., Katembo, J. L. M. and Kamwira, I. S. (2020). Antimicrobial resistance in a war-torn country: Lessons learned in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. One Health, 9, 100120.

ECDC. (n.d.). Antimicrobial resistance in the EU/EEA (EARS-Net) - AER for 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2022, from

Fouzia Bano. (2021). A forgotten conundrum: regulating the use of antimicrobials in a fragile context - Somalia. ReliefWeb-WHO.

Gajdács, M., Urbán, E., Stájer, A. and Baráth, Z. (2021). Antimicrobial Resistance in the Context of the Sustainable Development Goals: A Brief Review. European Journal of Investigation in Health, Psychology and Education 2021, 11:71-82.

Garba, B., Habibullah, S. A., Saidu, B. and Suleiman, N. (2019). Effect of mastitis on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats. Veterinary World, 12(4).

Garba, Bashiru, Bahaman, A. R., Bejo, S. K., Zakaria, Z., Mutalib, A. R. and Bande, F. (2018). Major epidemiological factors associated with leptospirosis in Malaysia. In: Acta Tropica 178:242–247. Elsevier B.V.

Hall, R. J., Whelan, F. J., McInerney, J. O., Ou, Y. and Domingo-Sananes, M. R. (2020). Horizontal Gene Transfer as a Source of Conflict and Cooperation in Prokaryotes. Frontiers in Microbiology. 11:1569.

Holmes, K. K., Bertozzi, S., Bloom, B. R., Jha, P., Gelband, H., DeMaria, L. M. and Horton, S. (2017). Major Infectious Diseases: Key Messages from Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition. Disease Control Priorities, Third Edition (Volume 6): Major Infectious Diseases, 1–27.

Jibril, A. H., Okeke, I. N., Dalsgaard, A., Kudirkiene, E., Akinlabi, O. C., Bello, M. B. and Olsen, J. E. (2020). Prevalence and risk factors of Salmonella in commercial poultry farms in Nigeria. PLOS ONE, 15(9). e0238190. external evaluation of IHR core capacities of the Republic of Somalia. (n.d.). Retrieved February 6, 2022, from

Karim, M. R., Zakaria, Z., Hassan, L., Ahmad, N. I., Faiz, N. M. and Garba, B. (2021). Rapid detection of colistin-resistant Enterobacterales using the resazurin reduction-based assay. Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance, 26: 154–156.

Linard, C., Alegana, V. A., Noor, A. M., Snow, R. W. and Tatem, A. J. (2010). A high resolution spatial population database of Somalia for disease risk mapping. International Journal of Health Geographics 9: 45.

Liu, Y.-Y. Y., Wang, Y., Walsh, T. R., Yi, L.-X. X., Zhang, R., Spencer, J., Doi, Y., Tian, G., Dong, B., Huang, X., Yu, L.-F. F., Gu, D., Ren, H., Chen, X., Lv, L., He, D., Zhou, H., Liang, Z., Liu, J.-H. H. and Shen, J. (2016). Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: A microbiological and molecular biological study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 16(2): 161–168.

Manyi-Loh, C., Mamphweli, S., Meyer, E. and Okoh, A. (2018). Antibiotic use in agriculture and its consequential resistance in environmental sources: Potential public health implications. In Molecules, 23(4): 795 MDPI AG.

Médecins Sans Frontières. (n.d.). Improving care for people with drug-resistant tuberculosis in Somaliland and Puntland | Doctors Without Borders - USA. 2022. Retrieved July 6, 2022, from

Mohamed, M. A., Abdifetah, O., Hussein, F. A. and Karie, S. A. (2020). Antibiotic resistance pattern of Escherichia coli isolates from outpatients with urinary tract infections in Somalia. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 14(3): 284–289.

Mohamoud, A., Murila, F., Nduati, R., Mohamoud, A., Murila, F. and Nduati, R. (2017). Knowledge and Practice of Private Medical Practitioners regarding Diagnosis and Treatment of Paediatric Tuberculosis in Mogadishu. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 7(2): 77–85.

Moussa, A. A., Abdi, A. A., Awale, M. A. and Garba, B. (2021). Occurrence and phenotypic characterization of multidrug-resistant bacterial pathogens isolated from patients in a public hospital in Mogadishu, Somalia. Infection and Drug Resistance. 14: 825–832.

Musawa, I. A., Yakubu, Y., Garba, B., Ballah, F. M., Jibril, H. A., Bello, A. S., Sani, M. G. and Farida, A. (2020). Dressed chicken as potential vehicle for spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Sokoto, Nigeria. Future Science OA, 6(10): FSO619

Neela, V. K., Azhari, N. N., Joseph, N., Mimie, N. P., Ramli, S. N. A., Mustapha, N. F., Ishak, S. N., Mohd-Taib, F. S., Yusof, M. A., Desa, M. N. M., Bashiru, G. and Sekawi, Z. (2019). An outbreak of leptospirosis among reserve military recruits, Hulu Perdik, Malaysia. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 38(3): 523–528.

Nur, M. A. S., Dahie, H. A., Hassan, N. A., Garba, B., Adam, M. H. A., Mohamoud, J. H. and Dirie, N. I. (2022). Seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 virus antibodies and sociodemographic features of pregnant women in Mogadishu, Somalia: a cross-sectional survey study. BMJ Open, 12(6), e059617.

Odenwald, M., Hinkel, H., Schauer, E., Neuner, F., Schauer, M., Elbert, T. R. and Rockstroh, B. (2007). The Consumption of Khat and Other Drugs in Somali Combatants: A Cross-Sectional Study. PLoS Medicine, 4(12): 1959–1972.

Prestinaci, F., Pezzotti, P. and Pantosti, A. (2015). Antimicrobial resistance: A global multifaceted phenomenon. In Pathogens and Global Health, 109(7): 309–318). Maney Publishing.

Salihu, M. D., Garba, B. and Isah, Y. (2015). Evaluation of microbial contents of table eggs at retail outlets in Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 13(1): 22–28.

Spohn, R., Daruka, L., Lázár, V., Martins, A., Vidovics, F., Grézal, G., Méhi, O., Kintses, B., Számel, M., Jangir, P. K., Csörgő, B., Györkei, Á., Bódi, Z., Faragó, A., Bodai, L., Földesi, I., Kata, D., Maróti, G., Pap, B., … Pál, C. (2019). Integrated evolutionary analysis reveals antimicrobial peptides with limited resistance. Nature Communications, 10(1): 4538

Supakul, S., Park, H. Y., Nguyen, B. N. and Giang, K. B. (2019). Prevalence differences in major non-communicable diseases in a low- middle income country: a comparative study between an urban and a rural district in Vietnam. Journal of Global Health Science, 1(2): e47

WHO-EMRO (2022). WHO EMRO | World TB Day 2022: Getting back on track to diagnose and report TB cases, to save lives | News | Somalia site.

WHO (2016). Mission report: 17–21 October 2016: Joint External Evaluation of IHR Core Capacities, Republic of Somalia.

WHO - Children in Somalia to receive new vaccination against deadly diseases. (2013). receive-new-vaccination-against-deadly-diseases/8239

Zakaria, Z., Hassan, L., Ahmad, N., Husin, S. A., Ali, R. M., Sharif, Z., Sohaimi, N. M. and Garba, B.

(2021). Discerning the Antimicrobial Resistance, Virulence, and Phylogenetic Relatedness of Salmonella Isolates

Across the Human, Poultry, and Food Materials Sources in Malaysia. Frontiers in Microbiology, 2021:12: 2513..

Zakaria, Z., Hassan, L., Sharif, Z., Ahmad, N., Ali, R. M., Husin, S. A., Hazis, N. H. binti A., Sohaimi, N. F. M.,

Bakar, S. A. and Garba, B. (2020). Analysis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from chickens and

chicken meat products in Malaysia using PFGE, and MLST. BMC Veterinary Research, 16(1), 393.

Zakaria, Z., Hassan, L., Sharif, Z., Ahmad, N., Ali, R. M., Husin, S. A., Sohaimi, N. M., Bakar, S. A. and Garba, B.

(2022). Virulence Gene Profile, Antimicrobial Resistance and Multilocus Sequence Typing of Salmonella enterica

Subsp. enterica Serovar Enteritidis from Chickens and Chicken Products. Animals : An Open Access Journal from

MDPI, 12(1):




How to Cite




Short Communication